By James Clerk Maxwell
An unabridged, unaltered version in seven elements, to incorporate: Introductory - On Electromagnetic Induction - common Equations of the Electromagnetic box - Mechanical activities within the box - concept of Condensers - Electromagnetic idea of sunshine - Calculation of the Coefficients of Electromagnetic Induction
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4, 1997. 10. L. N. de Castro, F. J. Von Zuben, Learning and Optimization Using the Clonal Selection Principle, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, vol. 6, no. 3, June 2002, pp. 239–251. 11. E. Dilettoso, N. Salerno, A Self-Adaptive Niching Genetic Algorithm for Multimodal Optimization of Electromagnetic Devices, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 42, no. 4, 2006, pp. 1203–1206. 12. Team Workshop Problem 22 [online]. htm 13. G. Aiello, S. Alfonzetti, E. Dilettoso, Finite Element Solution of Eddy Current Problems in Unbounded Domains, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.
Let us assume that the FEM equations are obtained by means of the Galerkin method in which the αn shape functions are used as weighting functions. The following integrals have to be evaluated: cnm = Sk 1 αn βm ds = Lk 0 αn βm dξ = Lk ηnm , (2) where Sk is the generic kth boundary side and Lk is its length, and the ηnm coefﬁcients are the entries of the following universal matrices: ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 55 −26 11 3 −1 ⎥ 1 1 1 ⎣ 1 ⎢ ⎢ 81 66 −27⎥ 4 4⎦ I(2) = I(1) = I(3) = (3) ⎣ ⎦ 1 −27 66 81 2 12 320 −1 3 11 −26 55 for 1st-, 2nd- and 3rd-order triangular elements, respectively.
2 Selection To search for the maxima, a “modiﬁed ﬁtness function” fi,H is evaluated for the ith individual: di b (ρi,H )c (2) fi,H = ( fi )aH dmax in this way the probability that the individual i is selected for reproduction depends on three factors: 1. e. the weighted sum of the targets, calculated for the i-th individual (we assume that fi is positive); 2. A penalization factor di /dmax , for the individuals present in crowded zones, where di is the average Euclidean distance between the nc individuals closest to the individual i: nc ∑ dik (3) di = k=1 nc (dik being the Euclidean distance between individual k and individual i) and dmax is the largest di ; 3.
A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field by James Clerk Maxwell