By Alan R. Katritzky (Eds.)
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Additional info for Aminomethylenemalonates and Their Use in Heterocyclic Synthesis
These observations indicate a complex history of multiple episodes of breaking, infilling, and closure under randomly oriented, extensional, and compressional stresses at moderate temperatures and negligible pressures. Such conditions are unlikely in any purely sedimentary, volcanic, igneous, or metamorphic environment. Other possible blocky peds in 24 Fig. 7. ') in subsurface (Ae) horizon of Waterval Onder clay paleosol of Fig. 2. Scales graduated in cm. (Retallack 1986b) Precambrian paleosols worthy of further examination are the clay-lined units of soil material illustrated by Gay and Grandstaff (1980) and the so-called "zebraic fracturing" of Lowe (1983), Lowe et al.
No indisputable microfossils have yet been found in a Precambrian paleosol despite several tantalizing possibilities (Retallack 1986 a). Encouragement for the search comes from the discovery of traces of supratidal microbes in Cambrian phoscretes (Southgate 1986). These microbial traces can be distinctive but are very similar in soils and shallow marine or lacustrine deposits (Siegel 1977; Golubic and Campbell 1979). For example, some Precambrian paleosols contain structures like microbially produced rock varnish (Fig.
Clarendon, Oxford, 174 pp Grandstaff DE, Edelman MJ, Foster R W, Zbinden E, Kimberley MM (1986) Chemistry and mineralogy of Precambrian paleosols at the base of the Dominion and Pongola Groups. Precambrian Res 32:97-131 Gray J (1985) The microfossil record of early land plants: advances in understanding of early terrestrialization, 1970-1984. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser B 309: 167195 29 Gray MB, Nickelsen RP (1989) Pedogenic slickensides, indicators of strain and deformation processes in redbed sequences of the Appalachian foreland.
Aminomethylenemalonates and Their Use in Heterocyclic Synthesis by Alan R. Katritzky (Eds.)