By Sujata Gupta, Stephen Hall, Nick Mabey, Clare Smith
Protecting either the constructing and constructed international, this booklet identifies vital new regulations to foster powerful agreements in emissions and forestall international warming: life like rules which may still obtain overseas and family aid.
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Extra resources for Argument in the Greenhouse: The International Economics of Controlling Global Warming
Efficiency Actions or obligations assumed under the treaty should lead to economically efficient achievement of the stated goals. Stability In the absence of coercive sanctions on non-complying parties to a treaty the policy framework should provide incentives for long term co-operation and reduce the rewards of non-compliance. Different policy instruments will have different strengths in each category and finding the most effective policy will involve trade-offs between characteristics such as efficiency and stability.
This is especially important for sink enhancements such as reforestation and land set-aside, as the different potential uses of the land (crops, ranching or fallow) greatly affect the net carbon emissions from the project. This problem is enhanced by the incentives in JI which encourage both the ‘buyer’ and the ‘seller’ to exaggerate the amount of CO2 saved to the international monitoring authority. International co-ordination of climate change prevention 23 The monitoring and verification problems are exacerbated in the more general case of JI between nations (Bohm 1994), when some countries have committed to emissions limits and others have not.
09/ kWh. Source: IPCC 1992 a All scenarios assume coal resources up to 197,000 EJ. 3/gigajoule at the mine, b Tropical deforestation rates (for closed and open forests) begin from an average rate of 17 million hectares/year (FAO 1991) for 1981–90, then increase with population until constrained by availability of land not legally protected. IS91d assumes an eventual halt of deforestation for reasons other than climate. Above ground carbon density per hectare varies with forest type from 16 to 117 tonnes C/hectare, with soil C ranging from 68 to 100 tC/ha.
Argument in the Greenhouse: The International Economics of Controlling Global Warming by Sujata Gupta, Stephen Hall, Nick Mabey, Clare Smith