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Extra resources for Aristotle - Physics (c. 350 BC) - Translated by Hardie and Gaye

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Let us take for granted about it the various characteristics which are supposed correctly to belong to it essentially. We assume then(1) Place is what contains that of which it is the place. (2) Place is no part of the thing. (3) The immediate place of a thing is neither less nor greater than the thing. (4) Place can be left behind by the thing and is separable. In addition: (5) All place admits of the distinction of up and down, and each of the bodies is naturally carried to its appropriate place and rests there, and this makes the place either up or down.

In the circle, the latter condition is not satisfied: it is only the adjacent part from which the new part is different. Our definition then is as follows: A quantity is infinite if it is such that we can always take a part outside what has been already taken. On the other hand, what has nothing outside it is complete and whole. For thus we define the whole-that from which nothing is wanting, as a whole man or a whole box. What is true of each particular is true of the whole as such-the whole is that of which nothing is outside.

Hence either every mover will be moved, or, though having motion, it will not be moved. g. both teaching and learning, though they are two, in the learner), then, first, the actuality of each will not be present in each, and, a second absurdity, a thing will have two motions at the same time. How will there be two alterations of quality in one subject towards one definite quality? The thing is impossible: the actualization will be one. But (some one will say) it is contrary to reason to suppose that there should be one identical actualization of two things which are different in kind.

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Aristotle - Physics (c. 350 BC) - Translated by Hardie and Gaye

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