Download e-book for iPad: Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and General Circulation by Masaki Satoh

By Masaki Satoh

ISBN-10: 3642135730

ISBN-13: 9783642135736

ISBN-10: 3642135749

ISBN-13: 9783642135743

General move versions (GCMs), which outline the elemental dynamics of atmospheric stream, are these days utilized in a number of fields of atmospheric technology comparable to climate forecasting, weather predictions and environmental estimations. the second one version of this popular paintings has been up to date to incorporate fresh development of excessive answer worldwide modeling. It additionally comprises for the 1st time features of high-resolution worldwide non-hydrostatic versions that the writer has been learning because the ebook of the 1st version. a few highlighted effects from the Non-hydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric version (NICAM) also are integrated. the writer outlines the theoretical recommendations, basic types and numerical equipment for modeling the final movement of the ambience. focusing on the actual mechanisms answerable for the improvement of large-scale flow of the ambience, the publication deals entire assurance of an enormous and speedily constructing approach utilized in the atmospheric technological know-how. Dynamic interpretations of the atmospheric constitution and their elements within the basic movement version are defined step by means of step.

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Example text

4 Entropy balance We describe here the balance of entropy. 52) where s is the specific entropy per unit mass. 43), we obtain ρT ds dt = ε − ∇ · F ene . 53) This is the equation for the production of entropy. The right-hand side of this equation expresses diabatic change. 54) the change in entropy is expressed as ds dt = Cp Q . 56) which is the equation of potential temperature. Let us consider the second law of thermodynamics or the principle of the increase of entropy. 53) can be rewritten as ρ ds dt = = ε ∇ · F ene − T T 1 ene F ene ε + 2F .

The balance equation for momentum is given by setting A = ρvi and appropriate expressions for the flux and source terms. 12) which is called the momentum flux density tensor: ρvi vj is the advective part, and σij is the stress tensor. 13) where gi is the i-th component of an external force g. As the external force, we only consider a potential force that is derived from a potential Φ: g = ∇Φ. 15) which is called the conservation of momentum or the equations of motion. If the external force gi vanishes, a domain integral of momentum ρvi is conserved.

12) which is called the momentum flux density tensor: ρvi vj is the advective part, and σij is the stress tensor. 13) where gi is the i-th component of an external force g. As the external force, we only consider a potential force that is derived from a potential Φ: g = ∇Φ. 15) which is called the conservation of momentum or the equations of motion. If the external force gi vanishes, a domain integral of momentum ρvi is conserved. 17) where η and ζ are the coefficients of viscosity. The coefficients of viscosity are thermodynamic variables and as such are functions of pressure and temperature in general.

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Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and General Circulation Models by Masaki Satoh


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