New PDF release: Capillary Condensation and Adsorption

By Bray W. C.

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76 µm. 6). e. 2 Indicative graphs of the energy radiated by the Sun and the Earth at various wavelengths. The spectrum of the radiant energy from unit area of the Sun is scaled down. e. C). Wavelengths absorbed by various gases are shown as dark bands. called infra-red radiation (IR). 7). The Earth emits only longwave radiation, which can be felt but not seen. 2). 7. 3). Its orbit around the Sun is not quite circular and the Sun is offset from the centre. E). e. summer in the southern hemisphere hotter than in the northern.

2), becoming warmed by the energy absorbed. B). Cloud droplets are particularly efficient absorbers and emitters of LW, and clouds which are thick enough to hide the Sun are completely opaque to LW. The longwave radiation from such clouds is governed by their temperature, not by any source behind them, whereas SW from clouds is unaffected by cloud temperature. The downwards LW from clouds and air is called sky radiation (or atmospheric radiation or counter radiation). This is more than offset by the terrestrial radiation upwards because the ground is warmer than the sky.

4), and (ii) absorption by the ozone of longwave radiation from the ground beneath (Chapter 2). There is normally a negative lapse rate throughout the stratosphere, due to the relatively high temperature at the stratopause. 9), due to the absence of sunshine for several months. The result is that temperatures are below -100°C at the polar stratopause in winter, and this produces upper winds exceeding 60 m/s at the highest latitudes (Chapter 12). On the other hand, the temperature at the polar stratopause often exceeds 30°C in summer because of the long days then.

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Capillary Condensation and Adsorption by Bray W. C.


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